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Biology homework help

Biology homework help.

Chapter 22: Immune SystemNONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE/Innate defenses:Name some infectious agents and the diseases caused by them;The ability of the body to protect itself from damage or disease is called.The resistance that provides defense mechanism against a range of pathogens in a general way is called  The resistance that provides defense mechanism against a specific pathogen by specialized lymphocytes is called  The system of the body responsible for specific resistance is the _________ system.Body’s first line of defense functions to__________________  .First line of defense is provided by the and the_________________.Body’s second line of defense works after the _ ______ have gained entry into the body. ____________________________ are chemicals released by virus infected cells.Interferons stimulate the neighboring cells to release _________ that inhibit viral production.Complement is a group of____________________________   .The infected and abnormal cells of the body are destroyed by______________________.Define Phagocytosis:Briefly describe the five steps involved in phagocytosis:1.    2.    3.    4.    5.        The most common type of WBCs involved in phagocytosis are _______________.
    Neutrophils leave the blood and migrate to the infected area attracted by the chemicals released from the _______________________.    Macrophages are that leave blood, enter tissues of the body and then in size.    Some macrophages move around in the body are therefore called, whereas others remain fixed and are called.What is the inflammatory response?Symptoms of local inflammation include: ,, , & .    An injury to the WBCs, basophils and mast cells causes the release of which triggers vasodilation.SPECIFIC RESISTANCE:What is immunity? Innate immunity is also called Adaptive immunity is also called Specificity and memory are characteristics of    _ What is specificity? What is memory? The WBCs involved in the specific resistance are the _________________Two main types of lymphocytes are.and
    The lymphocytes are formed initially in the . Following this some lymphocytes stay in the bone marrow to mature and differentiate, and are therefore called . Others migrate to the thymus gland, to mature and differentiate and are therefore called.Lymphocytes recognize antigens with the help of specialized membrane bound proteins called .What are antigens? What are haptens? Antigens which are not produced in the body are called _____ whereas those made by the body and capable of triggering an immune response are called .The primary lymphatic organs are the sites where form and mature. e.g. of primary lymphatic organs areThe secondary lymphatic organs and tissues are the sites where _, e.g. include the _______________________________________________________________.The portion of an antigen recognized by a lymphocyte is called:.Cell mediated Immunity works best against pathogens and antibody mediated immunity works best against ___________ pathogens.Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins on the surfaces of cells called.MHC Class I Molecules are found on nucleated cells and function to.MHC Class II Molecules are found on the surface of which include , and .Briefly describe the processing of exogenous antigens by the antigen presenting cells: What are cytokines?Briefly describe their role in the specific immunity:Cell mediated immunityCell mediated immunity is due to lymphocytes and is most affective against
_________________.Activation of T cells is regulated by:a.b.Describe the steps involved in Cell mediated ImmunityName the different types of T cells and briefly describe their function/s:How does the perforin released from cytotoxic T cells work?Humoral or Antibody Mediated ImmunityAntibody-Mediated Immunity is most effective against ________________________Antigens activate specific B cells which differentiate into cells and cellsPlasma cell secrete which are released in the and inactivate the foreign antigens.Briefly describe the clonal selection process.Antibodies are Antibodies are also known as Each antibody is a shaped molecule, composed of two and two chains.Where is the variable region? The variable region is responsible for? What is the constant region responsible for?Name the 5 principal classes of antibodies and briefly describe their functions:
What are monoclonal vs polyclonal antibodies?Describe some applications of monoclonal antibodies:Immunological Memory:Primary immune response is seen after the to an antigen and results in proliferation of .Secondary immune response occurs whenSecondary response is  and than the primaryimmune response.Secondary immune response is due to ___________________________________.Types of Immunity:Differentiate between active and passive immunity ?Differentiate between the term naturally acquired vs artificially acquired mean?The vaccine usually contains:oSome part oDead or a live, .Which is longer lasting immunity, active or passive? Give one example of each of the following type of immunity :oNaturally acquired active immunity:oArtificially acquired active immunity:oNaturally acquired passive immunity:oArtificially acquired active immunity:

Biology homework help


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